Equine Metabolic Syndrome: The 2019 consensus statement
Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) is a widely recognised collection of risk factors for endocrinopathic laminitis. The most important of these risk factors is insulin dysregulation (ID). Clinicians and horse owners must recognize the presence of these risk factors so that they can be targeted and controlled to reduce the risk of laminitis episodes. Diagnosis of EMS is based partly on the horse's history and clinical examination findings, and partly on laboratory testing. Several choices of test exist which examine different facets of ID and other related metabolic disturbances. EMS is controlled mainly by dietary strategies and exercise programs that aim to improve insulin regulation and decrease obesity where present. In some cases, pharmacologic aids might be useful. Management of an EMS case is a long-term strategy requiring diligence and discipline by the horse's carer and support and guidance from their veterinarians.