Pain, pain, go away: Treating acute and chronic pain
I WANT to be in pain – said no one EVER. However, pain is actually beneficial in preventing or decreasing tissue damage. But pain whose intensity exceeds that needed for protection, or pain that is present in tissue that has already healed or that is ‘non-healing’ (eg, lesions in osteoarthritis) has no benefit and must be treated. Un- or under-treated leads to a barrage of health, welfare and behavioral effects that can add to patient morbidity, and even mortality. Acute pain is somewhat more predictable and often alleviated/eliminated using standard analgesic drugs like anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, local anesthetics and alpha-2 agonists. Chronic pain is more complicated and can be difficult to treat. In addition to standard analgesic drugs, a variety of other treatment modalities (both pharmacologic & nonpharmacologic) must be considered. New options and new ways to use old options will be pains-takingly described.
- At the end of this lecture the delegate will be able to:
- •Describe the medical, welfare and behavioral adverse effects of un- or under-treated pain.
- •Develop analgesic protocols for acute pain based on knowledge of the mechanism of action of the drugs and their role in the pan pathway.
- •Develop analgesic protocols for chronic pain based on knowledge of the mechanism of action of the drugs/techniques and their role in the pain pathway.